As of 2012, for domestic US drivers, you will need a valid drivers license with photo ID from your home state that will be in effect for the entire rental period.
Some companies will accept a temporary license, but not all, so you should call them to verify. If I were you, I'd call the Hawaii car rental location you're planning on renting from and speak to someone there (get their name too).
Some car rental companies state in their terms and conditions, "In the U.S., before we will rent a vehicle and when the customer arrives at our location, the customer and any additional authorized drivers may be subject to a driving record and license check with the DMV." This is not only to verify the validity of a temporary driver's license, but also whether you've had an invalid, suspension or revocation, convictions for moving violations, reckless driving convictions, DUI, (Driving under th influence), DWI (driving while intoxicated) and DWAI (driving while ability impaired), charged with failure to report an accident, or leaving the scene of accident, possession of stolen vehicle or use of a vehicle in a crime, expired license, or car accidents.
You cannot use a learner's permit to rent a car or to drive a rental car.
You are not allowed to use a rental car to take a driving test.
As of 2012, for foreign drivers (non-US, non-Canadian), usually what is required to rent a car in the United States is your driver's license with photo ID on it from your home country of residence, a passport, and a return trip ticket. But if it is not in English, then an International Driver's Permit is required as a means of interpreting your foreign language license. As a foreign driver in the US, you cannot use an International Driver's Permit all by itself to rent a car.
Non-U.S. and non-Canadian residents are required to present a valid license and a passport from their home country. If the information on it is not written in the classic Latin alphabet, you must also present an International Driving Permit. If you have indicated on your reservation that you are a non-U.S. resident, you must also present proof of your return trip back to your resident country or your confirmed reservation rate will change.
A valid driving licensing document is required for all operators of any Avis vehicle. It must be valid at the time of rental, and remain valid throughout the rental period. All drivers must meet Avis' requirements. Driver's licenses accepted in the U.S. are driver's licenses issued:
For more information, please call 800-331-1212. If you intend to rent outside your home country, you may also be required to present an International Driver's Permit. International Driver's Permits are valid only if presented with the original local license. An International Driver's Permit it not acceptable by itself. In addition, at the time of rental, the renter, authorized driver or additional driver may be subject to an electronic DMV (Dept. of Motor Vehicles) check or may be required to sign a declaration attesting to the fact that they have a valid license that is not currently suspended, revoked, expired, cancelled or surrendered. A temporary licensingdocument is acceptable only if it has no restrictions and is valid for the entire period of the rental. Individuals with learner's permits may not operate Avis vehicles.
A foreign drivers license issued by the country of residence of the renter and additional drivers. If it is not in English, the renter and drivers will be required to present both the foreign issued document and a current International Drivers Permit (IDP); or, if from Japan, a Japanese Translation Service. An IDP does not give a person the right to drive, but provides a certified translation of the valid foreign drivers license. An IDP can be obtained in the drivers country of residence only with a valid license. An IDP (or certified translation) without the foreign issued license is not acceptable. *If the foreign issued drivers license is from a country where permanent or non-expiring licenses are issued, the renter and any additional drivers will also be required to show their passport, visa or other current U.S. issued documentation at the beginning of the rental authorizing the renter or driver to be present in the USA at the time of rental.